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Inzicht in de private cloud technologie
Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies
Dankzij cloud computing hoeven systeemontwikkelaars niet meer bang te zijn dat er beperkingen ontstaan op het gebied van data opslag, computatie snelheden en netwerkbandbreedte. Dat vergemakkelijkt de applicatie ontwikkeling enorm. Wanneer nieuwe applicaties dat vereisen, kunnen IT-bronnen immers snel worden opgeschaald. Bronnenbeheer verloopt via een eenvoudig webportaal of zelfs volledig geautomatiseerd. Hierdoor stijgt de operationele efficiëntie en dalen de arbeidskosten. Doordat clouddiensten worden afgenomen op basis van verbruikskosten, hoeven start-ups geen kostbare IT-investeringen te doen en krijgen grote ondernemingen meer inzicht in hun operationele kosten. Al deze voordelen worden uitgebreid toegelicht in deze whitepaper van analysebureau GigaOM en beschikbaar gesteld door Equinix, wereldwijde aanbieder van interconnectie en datacenters. Bovendien geeft deze whitepaper inzicht in de belangrijkste technologieën die nodig zijn voor de uitrol van private clouds.
Maand / jaar:november 2012
SamenvattingDankzij cloud computing hoeven systeemontwikkelaars niet meer bang te zijn dat er beperkingen ontstaan op het gebied van data opslag, computatie snelheden en netwerkbandbreedte. Dat vergemakkelijkt de applicatie ontwikkeling enorm. Wanneer nieuwe applicaties dat vereisen, kunnen IT-bronnen immers snel worden opgeschaald. Bronnenbeheer verloopt via een eenvoudig webportaal of zelfs volledig geautomatiseerd. Hierdoor stijgt de operationele efficiëntie en dalen de arbeidskosten. Doordat clouddiensten worden afgenomen op basis van verbruikskosten, hoeven start-ups geen kostbare IT-investeringen te doen en krijgen grote ondernemingen meer inzicht in hun operationele kosten. Al deze voordelen worden uitgebreid toegelicht in deze whitepaper van analysebureau GigaOM en beschikbaar gesteld door Equinix, wereldwijde aanbieder van interconnectie en datacenters. Bovendien geeft deze whitepaper inzicht in de belangrijkste technologieën die nodig zijn voor de uitrol van private clouds.
Het gebruik van cloud statistieken
Private cloud technologie
Een nieuwe manier van denken over het datacenter ontwerp
Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies By Dave Ohara This research was underwritten by Equinix !"#$%&!#'($)*+, +$,-.'*/'0*12.123 ( ! & ........................... .......................... !"#$%&DAVE OHARA...........................................................................................3 !"#$%&232!#-&4)#...........................................................................................3 LIFE AFTER PUBLIC CLOUD................................................................................4 Growing pains&99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999.5 Using cloud metrics 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999....................10 & .................................... Enabling technologies&999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999911 ( A new way of thinking about data center design 999999999999999999999999999999999.............12 & . . ( !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies B+,+?0+3(ACDD (@(A(@ !"#$%&!#'($)*+, About Dave Ohara Dave Ohara holds a degree in Industrial Engineering and Operations from the University of California, Berkeley. He joined HP after graduation, working in process engineeringtype of jobs in PC manufacturing, quality and reliability, and distribution logistics. After five years, he joined Apple to redesign its distribution logistics system and quickly moved through a variety of HW and SW product development positions. He has also worked at Microsoft, on Windows 3.1 Far East versions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ife After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 (@(3(@ CLOUD COMPUTING Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies By Dave Ohara The following is an excerpt from the GigaOM Pro report,"Migrating Interactive Media and Web Applications to the Private Cloud" Life after the public cloud In less than a decade, cloud computing has come to dominate how media and web applications are delivered, and there are good reasons for this success. Cloud computing, roughly speaking, can be said to have four main benefits: The cloud provides on-demand allocation of resources, which gives system developers the perception of infinite resources for data storage, computation and network bandwidth. With cloud computing, capacity planning becomes a nonissue for developers, who never need to worry about their application outgrowing the fixed capabilities of any particular data center. The on-demand allocation of resources greatly shortens the time needed for deployment of a new application. There's no ramp-up time for the data center itself. The cloud provides a self-service approach for administrators to manage resources. For example, there might be a web portal for requesting additional compute instances. Resources can also be managed automatically by software. Self-service management reduces labor costs and is operationally efficient. The cloud provides scalable resource usage. Applications can run on a single virtual server instance or thousands of servers that are distributed across the globe. Scaling from a few servers to thousands can be accomplished in minutes or hours, not weeks or months. The ability to scale up quickly is one of the most important cloud benefits for new applications. !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 -4- CLOUD COMPUTING The cloud provides measurable resource utilization. For the public cloud, this means that you pay as you go based on what you use. The pay-as-you-go model helps conserve valuable startup capital, and it gives visibility to operational costs. (For private clouds, resource measurement may take the form of interdepartmental accounting chargebacks or monthly reports.) It is therefore no surprise that many startups use the public cloud services offered by companies such as Amazon, Rackspace and SoftLayer to present their initial product offerings. Letting someone else take responsibility for networking, storage and computing resources allows a product team to concentrate on tasks that make its business grow. This is the promise of Infrastructure-as-a-Service offerings, and it works. Growing pains It is also true, however, that as products stabilize and audiences grow, the value proposition of the public cloud can become less attractive for an application. Questions of performance, control and cost come to the fore. What worked for the startup phase of a company may not be ideal as it matures, as is the case with Zynga, whom we profile later in this report. These issues tend to come into play once an application has reached the point that its operational expenditures for cloud services exceed $25,000 per month. By the time cloud services are costing $100,000 per month, these issues may become pressing. To understand this, it is helpful to look at an example. Web-based applications that deliver static content such as video and software downloads often use commercial content delivery networks. CDNs employ hierarchical replication and distribution to reduce the distance that data must travel when a user of the service requests a file. Files can be served from the network's edge locations, which !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 -5- CLOUD COMPUTING are in proximity to end users. Akamai and Limelight Networks are well-known CDN providers, although public cloud providers like Amazon and Microsoft, as well as transit providers like Level 3, are also entering the CDN business. Even telcos have started to develop CDN offerings for their networks. The following diagram shows the operation of a traditional CDN. Figure 1: media distributed to edge networks by a traditional CDN Source: Dave Ohara/GreenM3 The role of a CDN is being impacted by a trend toward more-interactive media-based applications, such as the web-based game FarmVille, which attracts more users when latency is low. Traditional CDN design is intended for static media such as large video files. Interactive and dynamically produced or personalized media reduce the usefulness of the original hierarchical CDN distribution approach. An alternative to this approach is to move some of the application logic to the edge network in addition to media files. For example, you might build a tiered application structure where some processing is !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 -6- CLOUD COMPUTING performed on edge servers that forward certain requests to a more centralized data center, as seen below in Figure 2. Figure 2: media and application logic distributed to edge networks Source: Dave Ohara/GreenM3 This example shows that network design and application design are often interconnected for applications that are large enough to merit the additional investment in this kind of customization. In other words, when an application reaches some level of maturity, the organization is likely to have the resources to invest in a network and application structure that is optimized for particular attributes of that application. Different applications compete with one another based on the user's perception of performance; studies have shown that web applications for retail sales produce progressively less revenue as latency increases. For mature applications that have numerous competitors and predictable capacity requirements, the one-size-fitsall approach of a public cloud provider (even with the additional support of a traditional CDN) may fail to produce an interactive application with competitive performance. !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 -7- CLOUD COMPUTING Reducing network latency by integrating application and network design is one of the reasons you might want to consider migrating to a private or hybrid cloud. In the case described above, the application and the network need to be modified to remedy the performance bottleneck. It's a case where system architects need more control over the environment than what would be offered by a public cloud provider. Such a modification would not be possible for an application that is hosted by a cloud service provider, since the cloud service provider handles all details of the network design. Note: Although this paper compares public and private clouds, it is also useful to briefly compare the private cloud approach to traditional IT. One of the interesting consequences of building applications in the cloud is that the development and operations teams work together more closely than in traditional IT. There are a number of benefits to the integration of development and operations, including timely feedback on the efficacy of decisions. With a private or hybrid cloud, changes to the application and network structure will quickly be visible, as there will be an increase or decrease in performance, revenue and traffic. In traditional IT, efficiencies provided by changes to the code or the IT configuration are difficult to identify, because they are executed by different teams and do not occur simultaneously. For example, the deployment of additional data center capacity may happen months after an application change is made. As a result of this lack of agility, servers in traditional IT centers often are over-provisioned and are not configured for the specific needs of the applications they run. Traditional IT focuses on a centralized data center and tends to neglect the distributed nature of large-scale Internet applications. Private and hybrid clouds, in contrast, are fully distributed computing platforms that include network design as an integral component. Also, it is still unclear how the existing CDN players will adapt to the trend to move applications to edge networks. In general, the more interactive or personalized your media distribution is for users, the less value a traditional CDN will offer. New service providers, such as Contendo, have entered the market to focus on the problem of content distribution in an age of highly interactive applications. !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 -8- CLOUD COMPUTING Relying on an out-of-the-box data center and network isn't always what an application needs. Examples of such a scenario include: Your system architects realize that the public cloud is "generic." A retail business and a gaming business use the same public cloud even though they have very different networking requirements. An architect can create a data center that is tailored to your specific needs. You may even benefit from using different servers and storage devices than are supplied by your public cloud provider. Your websites aren't as responsive as you would like. Slow response times translate into lost revenue, because customers become frustrated and go to a competitor's site. You rely on your cloud service provider for continuous service, but you have experienced downtime when your sites aren't available. This is an obvious source of lost revenue. You can improve performance to important markets by being geographically closer to those markets. You feel that it is risky to be completely dependent on an outside provider. From a business perspective, you are uncomfortable with being vulnerable to changes in price as well as to any problems with the network. You want to control network security to decrease the risk of hacking, computer viruses and other forms of attack. You want to be sure that you can comply with changing regulatory standards, such as practices for the storage and transmission of personal information. You have realized that public clouds lower your up-front capital costs but that a mature application may incur sizable recurring costs. Your operating expense grows as your business grows. At a certain point the higher operating expense outweighs the benefits of lower capital investment in infrastructure. If any of these reasons are compelling, you will want to evaluate your situation in more detail. Metrics and a migration strategy can help you. !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 -9- CLOUD COMPUTING Note: It is true that some of the largest web applications such as Netflix, Yelp, Newsweek, IMDb, Foursquare and Zynga rely on a public cloud provider such as Amazon. Very large organizations have the influence to negotiate custom agreements with cloud services providers that alleviate some or all of the issues mentioned above. For example, the largest organizations can demand custom engineering of the network, and they can even specify where data centers are located. There are only a handful of applications, such as Zynga and Netflix, that can demand a custom infrastructure. Using cloud metrics Metrics give you a way to quantify your business objectives and to measure them over time. Metrics and business goals should always align. Clearly uptime and cost are concerns, but they are only two factors among many. Network performance metrics can also be useful to help you evaluate how well the public cloud is working for you. You may want to collect data on bandwidth, latency, the number of hops a packet must traverse before it reaches its destination, the amount of time it takes to establish a connection with a server, the amount of time it takes for downloads and how often your application is unavailable because of downtime. How metrics affect the decision is dependent on an organization's business model. A financial institution cannot tolerate seconds of downtime, but a startup search service could survive for minutes. Understanding private cloud technologies From the service-oriented point of view of the cloud, the application stack can be divided into three layers. !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 - 10 - CLOUD COMPUTING The Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) layer corresponds to physical facilities, network, power and computing hardware. The Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) layer includes instances of a computer operating system that are hosted in partitions managed by virtualization software. The Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) layer is the application, which provides services to users who connect using the Internet. There are opportunities for a service-oriented approach at each layer of the technology stack. Cloud services generally operate at the IaaS layer. They provide the virtualized resources for computing hardware and networking. Enabling technologies There are several technologies that enable public and private cloud computing. The first is virtualization, which uses binary files (or images) that represent a server's configuration and data state. With virtualization, a single server can run multiple operating system instances at the same time, and the configuration state of a particular virtual server ("a compute instance") can easily be replicated. For example, an image can be loaded on many servers quickly as a way to scale up the number of compute instances in response to higher-than-expected demand. The second enabling technology is software that allows for automated operation of the data center. Open-source software such as OpenStack makes it possible for you to build a private cloud without the investment in custom management software that was previously required. Facebook has launched the Open Compute Project, an opensource initiative that provides cost-efficient and energy-efficient designs for data centers and servers. The Open Data Center Alliance is another organization that offers open-source software to create cloud infrastructures. You can also use commercial tools to build, manage and operate cloud-based infrastructure. Nimbula has tools to create a cloud operating system that supports IaaS in both public and private clouds in a manner that is similar to Amazon EC2. Another commercial tool for managing cloud environments is RightScale. (For more about !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 - 11 - CLOUD COMPUTING RightScale, see the Zynga case study later in this paper.) Commercial cloudmanagement software that enables enterprises to integrate the management of the cloud with their existing IT systems is produced by all the enterprise IT software providers. Choosing cloud management software is daunting. It can be difficult to evaluate the tools provided by each vendor or open-source community. Your technical team can evaluate the different options and, in concert with the executive leadership, choose the cloud-management software that best serves your business goals. A new way of thinking about data center design The service-oriented approach to cloud computing has inspired some significant changes in the way that data centers are designed. In cloud-based designs, there is a focus on system-level reliability rather than on redundant hardware at each layer of the system. For example, a cloud-oriented data center would not use expensive, redundant power supplies in an attempt to make individual servers more reliable. Instead, the application would be written in a way that lets it continue on a new virtualized server after a hardware failure, which may be located within the data center or in another geographic location. Applications that are resilient to hardware failures maintain the overall robustness of the system, even when individual components fail. This allows a cloud-based data center to be created from inexpensive, commodity hardware. The traditional IT data center that invests in reliability at each level of the stack is a dying breed. Cloud-based data center designs include the adoption of software engineering principles by non-software disciplines. The principles of componentization and the standardization of interfaces are used to reduce the need for each component to have customized configuration. It is quite common now for developers to spend time in operations, which is where the new term "DevOps" comes from. !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 - 12 - CLOUD COMPUTING Also, note that a cloud-based approach to data center and network design requires cooperation from all layers of the system, including the application. A private cloud provides the same kinds of virtualized execution environments and other services as a public cloud. In this sense, it is quite different from traditional enterprise data centers, which generally do not provide on-demand, self-service access to virtualized computing resources. If you use a public cloud today, your application will generally be easier to migrate to a private cloud than applications that run on legacy IT data centers. This represents an opportunity to bring cloud-oriented efficiencies into the corporate data center and to take advantage of the best practices developed in public clouds and apply them to a private cloud. As you consider the possibility of migrating from the public cloud to a private cloud, you must keep in mind that the system you are building is significantly different from a traditional data center and that creating a new team to build the private cloud may be easier than asking existing teams to support both it and the traditional data center. !"#$%&'()* 23-<>%>#-?<,-? !"#$%%"&'()*+ ,--".'(/01".212.324 ( Life After the Public Cloud: Keys to Understanding Private Cloud Technologies December 2011 - 13 - ContaCt Equinix Location AM1 & AM2: Luttenbergweg 4 1101 EC Amsterdam Zuid-Oost Netherlands Location AM3 Science Park Amsterdam: Science Park 610 1098 XH Amsterdam Netherlands Postal address: Equinix Postbus 12478 1100 AE Amsterdam The Netherlands Website: E-mail: Phone: Twitter: www.equinix.nl marketingNL@eu.equinix.com +31 (0)20 753 79 50 twitter.com/EquinixNL About Platform Equinix Equinix, Inc. (Nasdaq: EQIX) connects businesses with partners and customers around the world through a global platform of high performance data centers, containing dynamic ecosystems and the broadest choice of networks. Platform Equinix connects more than 4,000 enterprises, cloud, digital content and financial companies including more than 700 network service providers to help them grow their businesses, improve application performance and protect their vital digital assets. Equinix operates in 38 strategic markets across the Americas, EMEA and Asia-Pacific and continually invests in expanding its platform to power customer growth. © 2012 Equinix, Inc. WP-EN QUACLD 1F1-COVER MB-CL 1206 www.equinix.nl